Monthly Archives: May 2015

Installation and the Moving Image

Film and video create an illusory world, a reality elsewhere, and a material presence that both dramatizes and demystifies the magic trick of moving pictures. Beginning in the 1960s, artists have explored filmic and televisual phenomena in the controlled environments of galleries and museums, drawing on multiple antecedents in cinema, television and the visual arts. In her new volume, Installation and the Moving Image, CCW Professor Catherine Elwes traces the lineage of moving-image installation through architecture, painting, sculpture, performance, expanded cinema, film history, and countercultural film and video from the 1960s, 70s, and 80s.

Sound is given due attention, along with the shift from analogue to digital, issues of spectatorship and the insights of cognitive science. Woven into this genealogy is a discussion of the procedural, political, theoretical and ideological positions espoused by artists from the mid-twentieth century to the present. Historical constructs such as Peter Gidal’s structural materialism, Maya Deren’s notion of vertical and horizontal time and identity politics are reconsidered in a contemporary context and intersect with more recent thinking on representation, subjectivity and installation art.

Elwes is a critic, curator and practitioner who was a pioneer of British video and feminist art politics in the late 1970s, who writes engagingly of her encounters with works by Anthony McCall, Gillian Wearing, David Hall and Janet Cardiff, and her narrative is informed by exchanges with other practitioners.

Professor Sean Cubitt of Goldsmiths, University of London wrote of the new book, ‘Critic, curator, historian of the moving image and artist, Elwes’ account of media installation is by turns authoritative, illuminating, intelligent and moving. Her eye and ear for the nuances of works and ideas, and most of all her emotional intelligence, brings her to the forefront of commentators on the most important art form of the 21st century.’

Discussing the book, Elwes said, ‘I was always fascinated by the spatial and sculptural possibilities of video, and back in the 1970s and early 80s I used monitors to create the windows of a house or the reflection in the “water” down a well. Where I enclosed and concealed the monitors in sculptural structures, other artists like David Hall and Tina Keane used the “box” itself as a building block for media installations that emphasised the specific nature of the technology. Once I started looking at other forms of media staging, works that used film, light, sound and live performance, I found that the whole history of avant-garde practices intersected in the “mongrel” discipline of installation art.

My approach to the book was that of a genealogist, tracing the various ancestors of moving image installation in sculpture, painting, architecture, performance and, of course, in the history of film and video. These come with their own cultural philosophies and social and political objectives. The question of spectatorship runs like a knotted seam through the entirety of the text, and I end with a consideration of what cognitive science can teach us about the ways in which we watch film, how artists and technologies “craft the viewing experience” (Tim Smith). My final word on the subject is a chapter in which I shift the discussion from the spectator to the producer of the work and ask, what’s in it for the artist?’

Installation and the Moving Image is published by Wallflower Press, an imprint of Columbia University Press, and is supported by CCW Graduate School. The book will launch on 15 June.

Make Perhaps This Out Sense of Can You: notes on the Bob Cobbing symposium

Bob Cobbing (1920-2002) was a sound, concrete and visual poet, best known for his performed works in which language was anarchically stretched through shouts and hisses, interspersed between more recognisable tracts of spoken word. He was also a prolific organiser and collaborator: one of the founders of the London Filmmakers Co-op in the 1960s, manager of Better Books from 1965-7 and his imprint, Writers Forum, was amongst the first in the UK to publish works by John Cage and Allen Ginsberg.

Make Perhaps This Out Sense of Can You contextualises Bob Cobbing’s work as a poet as well as looking at his legacy as an organiser. The day is built around concerns that continue to be relevant today, such as the value of artist-led publishing initiatives, the productive qualities of an archive, the role of regional arts centres, and the intersections between art, literature and music.

The symposium will feature student responses to Bob’s practice. He was formally a schoolteacher at Bognor Training College in the 1950s, at Braziers Park in the 60s, and at the short-lived experimental Antiuniversity in 1968. Linking these diverse teaching experiences was an enabling and challenging spirit, in which students would be encouraged to experiment with concrete poetry, performance, artists books and to be given free rein to push their own ideas.

Oscar Gaynor (Wimbledon BA Sculpture alumnus, now studying Critical Writing in Art & Design at the RCA) has reworked a text originally written in response to the Bill Jubobe exhibition at Chelsea Space last December. The text plays on one of Bob’s early poems ‘Worm’, and pairs the visceral imagery with Charles Darwin’s writings about worms, ruins and the composting of language,

W W W W W WwwwwwwwwwwooooooOOOOOooooooooo—oooooOOOOooo—rrrrrrrrrrrRRRRMMMMM—mmmm!

And the voice comes from below, at turns escaping, erupting, and tripping up and comes to the surface. It breaks across the room. Mustered from the pit of the stomach and rising through the diaphragm, it reverberates through the ribcage, becoming larger and more uncontrollable, until it is released in haste through the windpipe, in lilting waves across the tongue. This worm—it’s not a word any more. The voice, through some kind of primal erosion, is shaping its edges into a new form, by sheer force is softening its edges, contracting and concentrating.’

He will be performing this with Henrik Heinonen, an artist who mainly works with sound, who studied at Wimbledon with Oscar, and now at Academy of Fine Arts Helskinki.

Camberwell College BA Graphics students Louis Hodge and Thomas Stone have been designing a fold-out poster which features the programme for the symposium. The cover samples some of Bob’s photocopied poems, and the programme text uses the Futura typeface in a similar format to the iconic Hansjörg Mayer’s series of pamphlets of concrete poetry works. The symposium title will be screenprinted in the Flaxman typeface designed by Chelsea School of Art Graphics lecturer Edward Wright in the 1960s, and now located in the letterpress workshop at Camberwell College. Flaxman was also used on the cover of Concerning Concrete Poetry edited by Bob Cobbing and Peter Mayer in 1971. The publication was not printed in quantity at the time, instead relying on ‘xeroxed ZAMIZDAT copies’, and losing some its initial sharpness through the numerous photocopies of the pages over the years.

Make Perhaps This Out Sense of Can You is programmed by William Cobbing and Rosie Cooper and presented by Camberwell, Chelsea & Wimbledon (CCW) Graduate School. Book your free place here.

The symposium will coincide with the Raven Row event Bob Cobbiiiiiiiiing Live, an evening celebrating the work of Bob Cobbing, with performances by Brian Catling, Beth Collar, Hannah Silva and David Toop, among others.  Wednesday 20 May, 6.30pm. You can reserve your place here.

Text by William Cobbing

Image by Louis Hodge and Tom Stone

Victorian Futures: Closing Remarks

On 14 and 15 May 2015, Chelsea College of Arts hosted the two-day conference, Victorian Futures Culture, Democracy and the State on the Road to Olympicopolis, a collaboration between Camberwell, Chelsea and Wimbledon Colleges of Arts (CCW), Middlesex University and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

In the closing panel of the conference last week, Munira Mirza (Deputy Mayor for Education and Culture GLA) said, ‘You couldn’t do it without culture,’ implying that culture was an essential element in building the relationship between the people and the state.  Munira Mirza’s comment took us back to where we began on day one of Victorian Futures, with the Reform Act of 1832 and a quote from Sir Robert Peel, who said at that time that the arts were important to ‘cementing… bonds of union between the richer and poorer orders of the state’.  One of the main aims of the conference was to use this past moment of democratic reform in culture and the arts to think about our future.  It is worth noting that Neil MacGregor, as he leaves the British Museum for the Humboldt Forum has been quoted as saying, ‘What is very remarkable about German history as a whole is that the Germans use their history to think about the future, where the British tend to use their history to comfort themselves… the Germans use it as a challenge to behave better in the future.’

On day two of Victorian Futures, which dealt with the relationship of the Great Exhibition in 1851 and the rendezvous with the history of the Great Exhibition in the Festival of Britain in 1951, Professor Barry Curtis (Royal College of Art) gave a paper that suggested, if Neil MacGregor is correct, that this attitude towards the comforts of history is one that we may have inherited from the Victorians, whose reaction to the ‘culture gap’ between aristocracy and industrial capital and the multiple shocks of the industrial revolution, was to return to the certainty of tradition as the foundation of public taste. Barry Curtis’s suggestion that the Victorians had difficulty in planning and envisioning their own future, and our subsequent fascination with the aesthetic symptoms of that failure in the 1950s, 60s and on into the present, was one of the central motifs of this second day of our conference.

On day one of Victorian Futures, we began by looking at the view forward from the 1830s towards the Victorian Era and began with an opening keynote from Dr Charles Saumarez Smith (Secretary and Chief Executive of the Royal Academy of Arts) on ‘Art and Public Culture in the 1830s’.  He showed how at that time, the Royal Academy of Arts made a decision to stand aside from developments happening elsewhere, that were beginning to write a new national script for a relationship between the state and the people of Britain built on public understanding of the arts and public access to the arts.  This keynote was followed by four readings of the work of the Select Committee on Arts and Manufactures in 1836.  In Malcolm Quinn’s (UAL) reading of the Committee, he suggested that this new script, as it was being written by radicals in the Select Committee, ushered in a moment of doubt about the meaning of aesthetic competency in a democracy.

Shibboleth Shechter and Mariana Pestana (UAL), took the conference forward from the work of the Select Committee in 1830s to the present and showed how some of the concerns of the 1830s about the relationship of art, design and manufacture are being re-imagined as a digitally informed community of makers in present day Bethnal Green.  Michaela Giebelhausen (UAL), in her response to the Committee, focused on how the 1830s was a time when the threat of revolution was still potent, and how the Select Committee had been offered the idea of the ‘artist/worker’ as an idealized way to encounter these threats. Christopher Marsden (Senior Archivist at the Victoria and Albert Museum) showed how the work of the Select Committee in offering ‘gratuitous and general’ access to museums was reflected in later cultural and political debates on public access.  After lunch on day one, we shifted perspective; instead of looking forward from the 1830s to the Great Exhibition of 1851, we looked back at the Great Exhibition ‘through a glass darkly’ from the post-war era, focusing particularly on the Festival of Britain and its ambivalent relationship with the Great Exhibition of 1851. Lynda Nead (Birkbeck, University of London) gave a paper in which she suggested that after World War Two, the Victorian Era was being looked at obliquely, as a shadow or intense darkness through which the modern could be seen in contrast. Dr Harriet Atkinson (Brighton University) gave a paper in which she outlined the problems that the architects of the Festival of Britain had in making their intended historical liaison with the Great Exhibition, and that the Festival had tried to banish the spectres of a Britain of capital and empire with an emphasis on land and people.

This was followed by a PhD student panel, in which Clare Barry (Middlesex University) spoke about the pier as industrialised bad taste and the democratic of the street. Julia Dudkiewicz (UAL) discussed Kelmscott Manor as a Victorian utopia constructed in the Victorian era and consumed in the present. Dan Davies (Middlesex University) showed how P&O generated its own version of a Victorian future, and Lauren Fried (V&A) discussed animate and corporeal design histories as a possible future for the V&A as a Victorian institution.

The final speaker of the day was Kieran Long (Senior Curator of Contemporary Architecture, V&A).  In his keynote, Long brought the room face to face with the legacy of Victorian attempts to use culture to bridge the gap between ‘the rulers and the ruled’ by asking how people make accommodation for public life in the present. He also made an plea for a consideration of people and common life in the new Olympicopolis development.  At the reception on day one, the guest of Guest of Honour Althea Efunshile (Deputy Chief Executive, Arts Council England) asked everyone to take inspiration from the Victorian era. She said, ‘There’s a long way to go; but in the light of our belief that the arts should have a home in public places among other major institutions, we welcome this. How great it would be to recreate that exciting hybridisation that Albert and Henry Cole dreamed of – to create a place where young people could truly experience how the disciplines can be connected.’

At the beginning of day two, Professor Catherine Moriarty (Brighton University), Dr Alex Seago (Richmond University) and Professor Barry Curtis focused on different aspects of the historical problem of a Victorian Future in which the attempt to rendezvous with the Victorian past, or even to definitively reject it, comes up against an ambivalent fascination and repulsion towards the symptoms of aesthetic manifold and complexity of the inability of the Victorians to project their future.   Zoe Hendon (Head of Museum Collections, Museum of Domestic Design and Architecture) then gave a paper on the V&A’s Circulation Department and the Silver studio, which examined how in the 1950s the V&A had a rather ambiguous attitude towards the era of its own foundation.  This was contrasted with the commitment by the V&A’s circulation department at that time to public education in the arts, a direct legacy of the 1850s.  Dr Jessica Kelly (University for the Creative Arts, Farnham) spoke about Architectural Review and the Victorian future in terms of mediating a relationship between democracy, art and the public or the ‘model middle class’. In the 1930s the legatees of the attempt a century earlier in the 1830s to institute a ‘march of the intellect’ to move culture away from its identification with the aristocracy and to broker a deal between the state and the public, used the architect as cultural leader or cultural ‘doctor’.

In the final panel of Victorian Futures, which engaged with the route from the Reform Act to Olympicopolis, Graeme Evans (Professor of Urban Cultures and Design, Middlesex University) asked everyone to consider who were the winners and losers in projects of cultural regeneration, and saw the legacy of the 1830s in a continued wish on behalf of governments to use cultural master planning to manage the relationship of work and leisure.  Evans echoed another aspect of the cultural reformers of the 1830s when he referred to the need for projects and cultural regeneration to be transparent to the public gaze.  Lucy Kimbell (AHRC Design Research Fellow, Policy Lab/University of Brighton) made the observation that ‘design schools are studios for society’ and should be oriented to social needs as much as those of industry.  Kimbell also reminded us of how the route from the Reform Act to Olympicopolis constantly reminds us of the importance of attention to scale in culture, and the need to balance local, national and global perspectives.  Lucy Kimbell also echoed the project of the Select Committee on Arts and Manufactures in 1836 when she spoke of the importance of ‘getting data’ on the cultural landscape.  Munira Mirza referred to the complex legacy of Victorian culture and the need to recognize and emulate the ambition of projects such as the Great Exhibition, a global event that was also accessible to all.  She also spoke of the need for a public conversation about the value of design to society.  Martin Roth (Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum) referred to the 1830s in Britain and Europe as a time of revolt and revolution, which required a cultural response. This kind of response could only be fully developed by institutions working together to develop a view through and across culture. Sir John Sorrell (Chairman of Court of Governors, UAL) also referred to the need for boldness and ambition in our attitudes to cultural regeneration, while warning that grand plans that do not also build a sustainable environment for the growth of creativity and entrepreneurship will not succeed.

It could be said that the project of the 1830s that we began with on day one of Victorian Futures, which attempted to build a centrist, liberal and democratic discourse on the arts on a national scale, may no longer be a viable option in the current situation, when local and global forces disrupt the operations of national democracy in a number of ways.  However, one element of this work that is still relevant, is the vision of a national cultural script determined by considerations of public education in the arts and public access to the arts. In the 1830s, there were a number of politicians and civil servants who wanted to serve the public by beginning to develop this script.  On the two hundredth anniversary of the Reform Act in 2032, what will be said about what we have made of their legacy?

The Brutalist Playground

Balfron Tower in Poplar, commissioned by the London County Council and known during development as Rowlett Street Phase 1, was designed by Ernö Goldfinger as social housing. Built in 1968 and listed Grade II in 1996, ownership was subsequently transferred from Tower Hamlets Council to the Poplar Housing and Regeneration Community Association (Poplar HARCA) who have managed the building since 2007. It was announced by Mayor Lutfur Rahman on April Fool’s Day (2015) that ‘Poplar Harca were unable to afford the cost of refurbishing Balfron Tower without selling it on.'[1]

Following on from a recent archival display at the Chelsea Café Project, managed by Sinéad Bligh, and the moving image screening during the Research Hub programme at The Cookhouse Gallery, organized by first year CCW research students, the BALFRON TOWER/Rowlett Street Archives will be included in a forthcoming evening event at RIBA on 9th June 2015 to launch The Brutalist Playground. RIBA, with Assemble and artist Simon Terrill, are hosting an evening of free talks, films, tours and more exploring the links between post-war architecture and urban play.

Part sculpture, part architectural installation, all play, The Brutalist Playground is a new commission by Assemble and artist Simon Terrill exploring post-war design for play. Occupying the entire Architecture Gallery at RIBA, it encourages visitors to look at the materiality and visual language of now lost Brutalist landscapes in new ways through an immersive and conceptual landscape.

In the run up to the planned refurbishment of Balfron Tower, the installation at RIBA will offer a timely opportunity to consider this internationally acknowledged building from a different perspective.

The BALFRON TOWER/Rowlett Street Archives were established by CCW PhD student James Lander/Those Who Wish To Remain Anonymous. As property guardians or artists in work/live residence at Balfron Tower, they have been privileged to its inner workings over three years. Their research is distinguished by its forensic nature, encompassing everything and nothing. From its historical beginnings as Rowlett Street, to the widely documented process of regeneration. From the internationally profiled artistic and cultural activities of recent years, to the overlooked traces and ephemera captured in common areas such as the north and south stairwells. Their research uses non-identical twin archives to investigate William Burroughs’ claim ‘Nothing Is True, Everything Is Permitted.'[2] In collaboration with art and intellectual property lawyers, they will consider the legal implications of these archives and their place within the discourse of architectural modernism in Britain. The aim of their research is the construction of unofficial storeys, in order to repeat the unrepeatable. They will determine who has the legal right to use the material and intellectual property associated with the archives and in which context. The aim of their research is the construction of unofficial storeys, in order to repeat the unrepeatable.

[1] Rahman, L. (2015) Statement on Balfron Tower. [Online] 1 April 2015. Available at: http://lutfurrahman.com/statement-balfron-tower/ [Accessed: 1 April 2015] Mayor at time of announcement subsequently removed from office due to electoral fraud.

[2]  Burroughs, W. (2010) Cities of the red night. London: Penguin.

Image: Children’s playground, Pepys Estate, Deptford, London, 1970s

Material Things: A Talk with British Artist Paul Coldwell

This talk will centre on Paul Coldwell’s print work and its relationship to his overall practice as an artist. Coldwell’s work focuses on themes of absence and presence, often taking archives or collections as starting points for investigation. His prints feature objects, often the everyday intimate objects with which we conduct our lives, and his approaches range from what could be described as traditional printmaking through to digital, and hybrids in between. The talk will be on 20 May at the New York Foundation for Arts (NYFA).

This event is part of NYFA’s ongoing relationship with UAL. They recently featured an article in the Con Edison Immigrant Artist Newsletter introducing Artquest, an online resource and a program of UAL. Artquest provides ‘everything a visual artist needs to know’ by encouraging critical engagement and providing practical support. Its online services are free and open to artists anywhere.

Coldwell’s practice includes prints, book works, sculptures and installations, focusing on themes of journey, absence and loss. He has exhibited widely, and his work is included in numerous public collections, including the Tate, V&A, British Museum, the Arts Council of England and Musée d’art et d’histoire, Geneva. He has been selected for many of the international biennials including Ljubljana, Cracow, and the Northern Print Biennial. His recent solo exhibitions include: A Layered Practice Graphic Work 1993-2012, a retrospective staged by University of Kent which then traveled to University of Greenwich, Re-Imagining Scott: Objects & Journeys at the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge 2013 and Charms and other Anxious Objects at the Freud Museum, London 2014. His current exhibition Material Things, is at the University of Bradford.

Coldwell has taught in many colleges both in the UK and abroad including as Visiting Professor at the University of Northampton (2006-09), Visiting Professor at the Chinese University, Hong Kong and Guest Artist at the Art Institute of Chicago in 2010 and Montclair University in 2012.

He has curated a number of exhibitions including Digital Responses (V&A 2001), Morandi’s Legacy; Influences on British Art(Estorick Collection London 2006), and The Artists Folio, (Cartwright Hall, Bradford 2014). In addition, he has published writings on a number of artists including Michael Craig-Martin, Richard Hamilton, Giorgio Morandi, Christiane Baumgartner and Paula Rego and contributes regularly to many publications including Print Quarterly, Art in Print and Printmaking Today. In 2011 he was invited as keynote speaker for Impact 7 International Printmaking Conference in Australia. His current book Printmaking; A Contemporary Perspective was published by Black Dog Publishing in 2010. To learn more about Paul Coldwell, visit his website.

Top image: Paul Coldwell, Sites of Memory, 2006 screenprint 59 x 71cms ( 23 x 28 inches).

Aldeburgh Lookout Residency- Altea Grau

In the isolated, magical and stimulating Aldeburgh Lookout, Altea Grau developed a project that aimed to collect material to transform the sequential condition of writing into the simultaneous realm of seeing. Through video, sound and drawing components she presented two site-specific installations that aim to reflect on the echo, duality and connotations of the North Sea at the end of her residency on 2 May. Her research aims to re-evaluate the concept and the form of the page, in particular, the double page spread as a particular space for art. The investigation explores the page as a material support and a discursive space in an exhibition context, relating it to concepts such as space, echo, duality, reflection and mirroring.

The purpose is to reflect how forms of presentation of the pages, as pieces of art in public spaces, have created a distinctive condition for the viewer to engage with the form of the double page spread. The aim is to shift the conventional focus and context of analysis by considering the double page as piece of art itself and to open new modes of engagement. This research confronts both traditional and new approaches, including how we might engage with electronic forms of the page and how the digital formats might become an artistic and poetic tool to expand and change the concept of the double page spread.

When proposing the residency, Grau said, ‘I would like to use The Aldeburgh Beach South Lookout residency to make new site-specific work stimulated by the landscape, the pebbled beach, the sky and the intrinsic connotations and resonances that the sea carries.

The Lookout is facing the North Sea, a marginal sea that connects Scandinavia, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. It brings the cold wind from the north and with it, rumours of history. The sea keeps moving every night, every day, during years and centuries, observing and being testimony of every episode of life that happens.

I would like to explore and to record the language of the sea. Isolated in the beach in Suffolk, it will be the perfect occasion to spend the time observing the tide, hearing the roaring of the immensity of the sea, the wind and the sound of pebbles dragging between waves.

I believe that even if 5 days is a short period of time, the experience will be very intense, and my aim is to take advantage of the stimulus and the process of making. Using beach and the views but also the space provided in the observatory. I would like to try to make the sea become a trace to bring it into the gallery space.’

Residency at the V&A and Tokyo Wonder Site


CCW Reader in Art and Media Practice, Sigune Hamann, is looking at ways panoramic images are displayed and experienced. As part of her residency at the V&A she is taking photographic film-strips of visitors in the galleries. Film-strips are exposed in one continuous rewinding process using an analogue SLR camera.

‘I focus on the moment when a common goal directs crowds in a common movement, physical and psychological.’ Hamann’s residency at the V&A and parallel residency at Tokyo Wonder Site involve taking panoramic film-strips in galleries and public spaces.

The shift in the perception of images in digital environments is mirrored in visitors’ expectations and abilities to process exhibitions. Hamann researches exhibiting and experiencing panoramic seamless images in relation to the scanning movements of our eyes in the perception process at a time when we experience content in visual culture increasingly as fragmented.

As in panoramic scrolls the viewer can experience an unrestricted continuous image plane in film-strip installations and online projects (www.walkalone-neverwalkalone.net), where they choose moments in the narrative and the speed of viewing – a process of reading that becomes increasingly relevant with digital developments.

Based at the Digital Programmes departments (Learning) at the V&A, Hamann is working with curators at East Asian and Theatre and Performance Departments. The project is funded through an Entrepreneur-in-Residence scheme by Creative Works London.

For the film-strips Hamann uses an analogue photographic camera, like a movie camera, to produce one long panoramic image. She exposes a whole roll of 35mm film in one rewinding movement while she moves 360 degrees. The first film-strip exhibited was taken in Tokyo at twilight.

During her residency at Tokyo Wonder Site in the new location in Tatekawa east Tokyo Sigune explored the construction of personal space in Japanese culture.

She observed commuters in Tokyo stations and took part in many demonstrations which have become much more frequent since Fukushima in 2011. She captured moments in film-strips when multi-directional movement in crowds becomes homogenous and individual bodies form the body of the crowd.

Sigune discussed the connections of film-strips with panoramic formats in Japanese culture with curators at the Idemidsu Museum Tokyo and at the National Museum Kyoto to whom she was introduced by Rupert Faulkner, senior Curator of Japanese Art V&A.

Sigune Hamann, film-strip (student demonstration Tokyo 2014)

In Tokyo and Kyoto Hamann saw several of the original scrolls of the 12th and 13th century rarely exhibited and started a new photographic series taken from her 6th floor apartment inspired by the Japanese style of the blown off roof technique (fukinuki yatai), which developed as a radical perspective where the environment is heightened like a sloped stage. This perspective gives us a view from the outside with just a hint of the individual human presence in this scenery suggesting narratives.

Sigune Hamann, blown off roof, Tatekawa, Series of photographs, 57 x 38 cm 2014

Illustrated handscroll of the Diary of Murasaki Shikibu, 13th century, Gotoh Museum Tokyo

Top image: Sigune Hamann film-strip (Harajuku,Tokyo) 2003

Video credit: Sigune Hamann, animated film-strip (V&A, Raphael Cartoons Gallery, Friday Late) 2015

First image: Sigune Hamann, film-strip (student demonstration Tokyo 2014)

Second image: Sigune Hamann, blown off roof, Tatekawa, Series of photographs, 57 x 38 cm 2014

Third image: Illustrated handscroll of the Diary of Murasaki Shikibu, 13th century, Gotoh Museum Tokyo